As I see it, there are four basic capabilities, or attributes, needed to build better customer loyalty. I learned about them from two McKinsey researchers. Those attributes, according to David C. Edelman and Marc Singer — and I agree — are the following: automation, proactive personalization, contextual interaction and journey mapping. What strikes me immediately is that only two of them are purely or largely technological — No. 1 and No. 4 — while the others are organized as human-mediated processes.